When Elizabeth was three, her father, Henry VIII, executed her mother, Anne Boleyn. He eventually also declared Elizabeth a bastard. But neither her brother nor older sister produced heirs, and eventually the crown fell to Elizabeth.
Elizabeth righted her depleted economy, largely kept her country out of war, and funded world exploration. Her moderate religious stance saved England from the bloody wars of religion suffered by other countries, although she permanently established it as Protestant.
She died at the age of 70 after 45 years on the throne. Unmarried and without an heir, her crown passed to the Scottish royal family.