Augustus, born Octavian, was the adopted son of Julius Caesar who became Rome's first emperor. Augustus was technically a title, and it was adopted by future emperors as such. However, the term essentially became Octavian's name, as his birth name does not appear on his coins, unlike other emperors.
Augustus ruled for 40 years before dying naturally at the age of 76. His success can be significantly credited for the survival of the Roman Empire.